Our DNA requires maintenance 24 24 and the intervention must be immediate as this could cause a cell to multiply causing with it a manufacturing defect and therefore incomplete or poor quality protein. If the lesion is not recognized and repaired in time, it will then produce a “mutation”, which means that our DNA will “adopt” this injury that will become part of its genetic code and therefore cannot be removed by the cleaning system. It is to avoid such anomalies that our cells have developed a sophisticated recognition system damage and managed by specialist genes: proteins constantly roam the two bars of the DNA ladder and crossbars looking for an anomaly, however small. This highly effective system is intended not only to the DNA of the cell nucleus but also to mitochondrial DNA is much more attacked by oxidation than its nuclear counterpart.
Once recognized lesion, the segment achieved place and then cut at the precise location of the lesion, the defective part is eliminated, then we will reconstruct the original segment using the intact neighboring parts that will give the exact nucleotide to replace. It remains only to pick up the “patch”, an exact replica of the missing part. A new protein then just check if the work was properly executed and allows the system to start.
Sometimes it’s vertical bars of the DNA ladder that breaks; it’s more serious than to have damage to the crossbars but the system still has the capacity to repair the same way. This is much more serious when the two vertical bars are broken, then one is on the brink of disaster. However that’s not counting with the creativity of our repair team that will cure in several stages. Each stage requires a special protein and the ultimate success requires perfect coordination. If only problem persists, it could result in generating a chromosomal mutation of cancer.
The DNA repair capacity of a cell is essential to the integrity of its genome and, therefore, in normal operation and that of the body. It has been shown that many genes which had found that they were influencing the duration of life were in fact involved in DNA repair. Failure to correct molecular lesions in stem cells that will form the embryo will induce mutations in the genome of the offspring and thus influence on the evolution of the species.